Database Normalization: Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF With Examples + PDF: The purpose of normalization is to make the life of users easier. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of a Student . A relation is said to be in 2NF, if it is already in 1NF and each and every In the 3NF example,Stud_ID is super-key in Student_Detail relation.

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It brings ambiguity to the database and can generate anomalies. Each normal form has an importance which helps in optimizing the database to save storage and to reduce redundancies.

Problems Without Normalization If a table is not properly normalized and have data redundancy then it will not only eat up extra memory space but will also make it difficult to handle and update the database, without facing data loss. Normalization is used for mainly two purposes, Eliminating reduntant useless data. Whenever possible, include the example in the answer itself.

That is, no 2 rows have the same set of values for exampls columns. An entity is said to be in the second normal form when it is already in 1NF and all the attributes contained within it are dependent solely on the unique identifier of the entity. X In 3n table above, we have data of 4 Computer Sci.

Accounting Business Analyst Cloud Computing. View all posts by Aman Goel. If a table is not properly normalized and have data redundancy then it will not only eat up extra memory space but will also make it difficult to handle and update the database, without facing data loss.


So it was all about Database Normalization: This is not desirable since someone who is updating the database may remember to change the name of the professor, but may forget updating the department value.

Dimension and fact tables are used in data warehousing. So the ID is not dependent on the name – it’s the name that is dependent on the ID. Emily Williams December 4, The data is divided into multiple tables to achieve data integrity and data redundancy. A super key is reduced to a minimum no of columns required to uniquely identify each row.

A relation is said to be in 1NF if it contains no non-atomic values and each row can provide a unique combination of values.

Basically, if a set of columns B can be determined knowing some other set of columns Athen 1jf should be a superkey. Kristopher Howard December 5, 9: First Normal Form 1NF: I’ve never had a good memory for exact wording, but in my database class I think the professor always said something like: Also, if we have to insert data of students of same branch, then the branch information will be repeated for all those students. Minimizing the insertion, deletion, and update anomalies iii. While designing schema for applications, we should always think about how can we make use of these forms.

A foreign key is used to join with the fact table. A relation is said to be in 3NF, if it is already in 2NF and there exists no transitive dependency in that relation. The greater the granularity, the deeper level of detail so the granular data means detailed data. In the next tutorial, we will discuss about the First Normal Form in details. At the same time, the exampoe of some types of operations can be slower in a non-normalized form.


There must not be any partial dependency of any column on the primary key. What is the difference between normalization and denormalization?

They store the data like this: Because you didn’t provide attribution. If anyone say that fact table is denormalized as it might contain duplicate foreign key then it would be partially correct to say denormalized.

As Wtih said in his response:.

However, the tuple student name, course code is unique since a student cannot enroll in the same course more than once. Does database normalization reduce the database size?

A table that is in 1st normal form and contains only a single key as the primary key is automatically in 2nd normal form. Similarly, each course may have multiple enrollments. Mary Brown December 4, Instructor’s name Course code Prof.

What is Normalization? 1NF, 2NF, 3NF & BCNF with Examples

This depends on your application needs that it requires normalization or not. Here is the Third Normal Form tutorial. Edgar Codd, an English Computer Scientist, stated that a relation is said to be in the first normal form when none of its domains have any sets as elements. This will increase the data retrieval exwmple and save the storage.

In the above table, we can see the employee details of a certain company. Basically, no 2 rows have the same primary keys.

What are database normal forms and can you give examples? – Stack Overflow

Granularity can be easily understood 11nf the term of detail in a set of data. We will now more formally study it. It is a trivial functional dependency: