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EARLE are all member It consists of a chronological overview of Portuguese literature from the twelfth century to the present day, by one of the most distinguished literary scholars of recent years, leading into substantial essays centred on major authors, genres or periods and a study of the history of translations.
It does not attempt an encyclopaedic coverage of Portuguese literature, but provides essential chronological and bibliographical information on all major authors and genres, with more extensive treatment of key works and literary figures, and a particular focus on the modern period. It is unashamedly canonical rather than thematic, in its examination of central authors and periods, without neglecting female writers. In this way it provides basic reference materials for students beginning the study of Portuguese literature, and for a wider audience looking for general or specific information.
The editors have made a principled decision to exclude both Brazilian and African literature, which demand separate treatment. It consists of a chronological overview of Portuguese literature from the twelfth century to the present day, by one of the most distinguished literary scholars of recent years, supplemented by a study of the history of translations of Portuguese literature, and substantial essays centred on major authors, genres or periods.
Tamesis Founding Editor J. Varey General Editor Stephen M. Earle 1 Eight Centuries of Portuguese Literature: We thank all contributors for their diligent and cooperative work towards this trailblazing volume.
Finally, we must give due thanks to our commissioning editor Ellie Ferguson, without whose patience and persistence this project would never have come to fruition. She has lusiaas a number of scholarly editions of Portuguese authors of the sixteenth luziadas eighteenth centuries, including the Sonnets of the Marquesa lusiiadas Alorna. Her main research areas are Comparative Literature and the construction of modernity. Mariana Gray de Castro is currently completing her Ph. Her main research interest lies in comparative modernist literature, and she has lectured on Fernando Lisiadas and modernism at the University of Oxford.
She has published articles in Portugal, Brazil, and the UK, and is editing a book of essays on Pessoa from a comparative perspective. Most of his publications are about the literature of the Renaissance in Portugal. He has a book in press, Portuguese Writers and English Readers: He is currently editing a selection of works on Portuguese emblems from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century for Glasgow Emblem Studies.
He was the founding editor of the journal Portuguese Studies, licro has published ten scholarly books, six collections of poetry and five novels. She began her academic career as a medievalist, has carried out research on the language of advertising, fairy tale motifs in contemporary literature, and translation issues, and is now working on Portuguese literature in English translation, and the anthology in Portugal.
She is the author of Mother Africa, Father Marx: She has published widely on twentieth-century women writers and representations of gender. He is author of A Canon of Empty Fathers: He is executive editor of ellipsis: He has published widely on the language, literature and history of the Portuguese-speaking countries. Early Brazil with Stuart Schwartz is to be published in It is intended as a companion in a literal sense — a guide, friendly and accessible, luvro we hope authoritative, for readers to take with them on one of ,ivro most interesting but least known literary adventures that Western Europe can offer.
The book has been written for readers who, for whatever reason, are new to Portuguese literature, who would like to have some idea of the terrain in advance, but who do not llvro an answer to every question. So each chapter provides an outline of the work of a writer or group of writers, kusiadas establishes the main issues in view, in a way that encourages further exploration. At the same time it gives a clear overview of areas which undergraduate and graduate students may be about lussiadas study in greater depth.
This is a Companion, not a history or dictionary of literature. There are other, and much more distinguished histories in Portuguese. The best-known modern one is A.
Os Lusíadas/I – Wikisource
The more recent Revisionist History of Portuguese Literature, in English but written mostly by a group of Portuguese scholars, also seeks to challenge conventional wisdom.
In a Companion, however, unlike a history, there is no single point of view, apart from the wish to guide readers on their way. In any case, in a book with eighteen authors editorial singlemindedness is impossible. In recent years Portuguese scholars have produced a number of excellent lusiadax of literature and of the work of individual writers. A list of some of them is given at the end of this Introduction. Compilers of dictionaries normally try to give a complete coverage of their subject, but that is not the ambition of this book.
After all, no one on a journey would tolerate a companion who insisted on explaining everything, without distinguishing the wood from the trees. Most of the authors selected for comment are, therefore, canonical, but we have also included some less well bxixar women and contemporary writers.
The Companion presents Portuguese literature as a landscape of writers and their books, arranged from a chronological perspective. There is some grouping by genre — the familiar genres of verse, prose and drama — but the emphasis throughout is on individual achievement.
We have, then, followed a traditional, humanistic agenda, but one which is flexible enough to accommodate many different styles of criticism.
We have avoided a thematic approach, partly because of our wish not to be dogmatic editors, partly because thematic divisions are subject to fashion and can very soon go out of date. Nor does the chronological perspective imply any particular view of the development of Portuguese history or culture. Rather our intention has been to allow the reader to llusiadas the work of individual writers in the context of their times.
The survey provides, amongst many other things, an outline of the history of Portugal as it impinges on literature, and for that reason the reader of subsequent chapters will need lusiaas refer back to it.
It is also a personal view of the whole of Portuguese literature, its dominant themes, personalities and fault-lines, from the perspective of a noted scholar and critic who is himself a creative writer, in verse and prose. Because it is a personal view, it is tempered, in different ways, by the chapters that follow. A section is included on the travel literature produced by voyagers to Africa, India and the Far East.
Briefer surveys are provided for the relatively quiet periods of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Lusisdas final chapter on Portuguese literature in translation directs the English-speaking reader to the largely undiscovered literary riches of Portuguese. We have made no attempt to cover Brazilian Literature or the Literature of Portuguese-speaking Africa, whose inclusion would necessarily have led to tokenism and subalternisation.
Ox quotations from Portuguese have been translated, in many cases by livgo authors of the chapters concerned, with the original reproduced where appropriate. Literary works are referred to by their Portuguese title, supplemented on first mention by a translation and where appropriate the titles of published English translations; second and subsequent references will use livdo the Portuguese title, in full or abbreviated. References to critical literature, particularly in Portuguese, have been kept to a minimum.
Each chapter ends with a list of editions of the main authors cited, and of available English translations of their work, and a selection of further reading, primarily in English. The index contains an exhaustive listing of authors, anonymous works, and historical figures. A few explanatory notes are required to explain some basic Portuguese cultural and historical conventions and their rendering in English.
Names of historical and political institutions e. Estado Novo, Cortes are given in Portuguese and translated on first occurrence where appropriate. Portuguese authors will generally be referred to by whichever distinctive combination of given names and surnames is current in literary discourse.
This may not correspond to the form under which they will be listed in alphabetically organised bibliographies, which will place authors under their final surname. This is often preceded by two or more parental and grandparental surnames.
Many Portuguese writers have created double-barrelled surnames, in the English manner, so as to officialise multiple surnames. At the same time, we only occasionally defer to the Portuguese predilection for using the given name of a few cherished authors, when this name is distinctive enough to identify them: Medieval authors, and particularly the poets of the early cancioneiros, are usually identified by a given name and a nickname or patronymic, as the modern use of surnames was not yet established.
Portuguese literary terminology will be used sparingly and with English equivalents or translations. Poetic examples will not require any understanding of Portuguese metrical terminology or conventions. Gale, Rector, Monica and Fred M. Cambridge University Press, 2 Portuguese poetic metre is conventionally analysed using the same counting system as French poetry, in which syllables are counted up to but not beyond the final stressed syllable, as opposed to Spanish counting which adds a final unstressed syllable real or potential after the final stressed syllable.
Thus a Portuguese decasyllabic line is equivalent to a Spanish hendecasyllable, and the seven-syllable Portuguese redondilha corresponds to the Spanish eightsyllable redondilla. Unlike their Italian, French and Spanish counterparts, Portuguese lines of verse rarely have any prescribed rhythmic regularities, such as stress on the fourth or sixth line of the decasyllable.
A Companion History Manchester: Carcanet, Wheeler, Douglas L. Figueirinhas, Reis, Carlos ed. Porto Editora, [1st edn ] Historical background Marques, A. Caminho, Cabral, Alexandre ed.
Caminho, Martins, Fernando Cabral ed. Caminho, Matos, A. In he was proclaimed king of Portugal. The language of this small country has become the official language of more than two hundred million people in four continents.
It has a literary tradition going back some eight centuries that began in a language not yet distinguishable from its Galician roots and gave rise to a remarkable poetic flowering which lasted from the early thirteenth century to the middle of the fourteenth century. The secular cantigas, collected in three Cancioneiros, are divided into three main categories: In a distinctive subgroup of these miniature masterpieces, patterns based on parallel verses, refrain and word-repetition are modulated to define metaphorical correspondences with natural surroundings and human feelings.
The dramatic personification inherent in these poems of latent animistic significance can be understood as a narcissistic male usurpation of the female or as a male projection into the female. In either case, they transpose the subjectivity of love into an objective expression of feeling. Practitioners are drawn from all social classes, ranging from King Dinis —grandson of Alfonso the Learned and founder of the first Portuguese university into enigmatic minstrels like Martin Codax.
Many poets move from one genre to another, each distinguished by its different and even opposed attitudes to women deification in the cantigas de amor, degradation in the cantigas de escarnho, and identification in the cantigas de amigo. Portugal shared the European medieval tradition of chivalric literature and religious edification through adaptations and fragmentary translations.
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In these formative works, historical record blends with the magical and symbolic, as in the complex narrative of events leading to the fall of the last Visigothic king and the invasion of the Peninsula by the Moors of North Africa, adapted from an Arabic chronicle by Mohammed Ar-Razi —?
Conceptually, the work centres on the dynastic crisis, which, in accordance with prevailing rules on succession, would have led to the annexation of Portugal by Castile since the heiress-apparent was married to the Castilian king. A majority of the Portuguese aristocracy sided with Castile while a large group of the population, drawn initially mainly from urban areas but later including some of the less favoured minor nobility and people from rural areas, took up arms against this technically legitimate succession.
This was the same problem that Shakespeare confronted more than a century and a half later in Richard II, a tragedy on the legitimacy of power and royal charisma centred on a dynastic crisis that was contemporaneous with the crisis in Portugal and led to the accession to the English throne of the first cousin of the Avis princes, Henry Bolingbroke.
They also have something of the quality of a Bildungsroman, the process of apprenticeship unfolding not so much in the development of a single hero as in that of the collectivity, represented from generation to generation by paradigmatic characters and social groups who determine the course of history.
Extraordinary individual portraits are placed alongside marvellous descrip- 4 HELDER MACEDO tions of mass movements, with a capacity for psychological analysis and visualisation of action possibly equalled only in nineteenth-century fiction.