Muscle Nerve –, BRACHIAL PLEXOPATHIES: CLASSIFICATION,. CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES. MARK A. FERRANTE. Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences. (English) . Cervical rib and median sternotomy-related brachial plexopathies: a reassessment. Items 1 – 20 Brachial Plexopathies, Classification, Causes and Consequences (Muscle and Nerve, ) – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read.

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Rarely, diabetic patients can experience brachial plexopathy as a result of microvasculitis induced ischemic nerve damage, usually seen in conjunction with lumbosacral plexopathy. Wikinews 0 entries edit.

The axonal viability index, the ratio of amplitude of the involved side to the unaffected limb, has been used for electrodiagnostic prognostication in newborns. Of the 24 who were employed prior causse injury, 13 returned to work and 8 within the first year of injury. Identification and avoidance of repetitive activities, extreme range of motions and excessive load carriage via shoulder straps that induce pain or weakness is critical.

Traumatic injuries are more common in males aged between 15 and 25 years. Burner or stinger syndrome: Of the 14 people who were not working, 10 associated their injury with their unemployment.

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Breast cancer Exercise effects and fatigue in cancer patients Functional outcomes after rehabilitation of cancers Intracranial Neoplasms Neuromuscular complications of cancer Palliative care Primary Bone Tumors Radiation plexopathy Rehabilitation interventions for metastatic bone tumors Rehabilitation management of head and neck cancers Rehabilitation management of hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant adults and pediatrics Side effects of cancer treatment cancer surgery, chemotheraphy, radiation therapy.

Wikiversity 0 entries edit. Views Read View history. February 28, C8-T1 with Horner syndrome Iatrogenic: Wikisource 0 entries edit. History Duration of symptoms Characteristics of pain, sensory changes, weakness, and muscle atrophy Infection, activity, or injury associated with onset Change in symptoms with change in head, neck, or arm position Autonomic symptoms Change in function activities of daily living [ADLs], sports performance, etc Personal or familial history of neoplasm, radiation, chemotherapy, demyelinating disorders, diabetes or previous brachial plexopathy Details of pregnancy and delivery in neonatal patients Physical examination Standardized neurologic examination Tests of manual muscle strength, sensation, and reflexes commensurate with the affected portions of the plexus May include Tinel sign over the brachial plexus Vascular: However, nerve grafts performed at earlier time points may result in unnecessary surgery in individuals who would otherwise demonstrate some degree of spontaneous recovery.


The incidence of radiation-induced plexopathies has decreased with tissue-sparing targeted radiotherapy. Commonly affects the infraclavicular plexus. Traumatic root avulsions may occur in conjunction with brachial plexus injuries in the context of high-energy stretch.

Timing is a crucial factor in determining the outcome after surgery as the distal nerve and the neuromuscular junction become increasingly incapable of accepting reinnervation by 20—24 months. Outcomes and rehabilitation after surgery: Most stated that their brachial plexus injury had little or no role in their relationships. Similar to traumatic spinal cord injury, these injuries are most often associated with motor vehicle and often motorcycle collisions.

Brachial Plexopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment – PM&R KnowledgeNow

Return to work RTW: C5-T1 with Horner syndrome Klumpke palsy: Demographics for brachial plexus injury depend on the etiology of injury. March 7,2: Rates of employment do seem to brachual affected by injury.

Pre-operative electromyography EMG of muscles innervated by potential donor nerves may be helpful in identifying subclinical injury to these nerves. RTW status should be determined only after maximum medical improvement. Diaphragmatic dysfunction in neuralgic amyotrophy: The patient then takes a deep breath and holds while extending the neck and rotating toward the plexopathiws side.

Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences.

Even with severe initial injury, electrodiagnostic evidence of recovery is expected within months with many showing full re-innervation by one year. A recent publication about patient reported outcomes of health related quality of life after neonatal brachial plexus suggests that physical limitations, followed by social health, and to a lesser degree, emotional health remain significant long-term issues in these patients. In post-ganglionic injury, it is prudent to wait for 3—4 months for spontaneous improvement to occur.


This page was last edited on 20 Augustat Other sites 0 entries edit. Mallow, MD Comments are off. Functional assessment Assess for specific deficits in the following: An integrated care team should include a physiatrist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, hand surgeon, occupational therapist, physical therapist, electrodiagnostician, pain specialist, and possibly an oncologist or pediatric neurologist.

Postganglionic injuries typically carry a better prognosis because they often demonstrate greater spontaneous recovery and are more amenable to surgical repair.

Ste Rosemont, IL Phone: Natural history of brachial plexus neuropathy. Plexopathy results from direct axonal damage, demyelination, and microvascular infarction and more indolently because of compression caused by fibrosis, commonly seen following radiation therapy for breast, lung, lymphoma, and head and neck cancer.

Counseling regarding etiology, treatment options, prognosis for recovery, and prevention of secondary complications is a critical component of the overall plan of care. It may be seen in a primary demyelinating disorder with secondary axonal loss or a primary axonal injury. Of note, these authors found that motor function and functional status did not correlate with employment.

Suprascapular C Lateral cord: In general, infraclavicular lesions have better prognosis than supraclavicular lesions and nerve root avulsions have little chance of spontaneous recovery. In one functional outcomes study, the rate of hemidiaphragm paralysis or elevation From proximal to distal, its elements are the following:.

LAC, median thumb Middle trunk: MR myelography using heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo pulse sequences with fat presaturation.