Ta kategoria dotyczy budowy systemu operacyjnego i zagadnień z tym związanych. Poszczególne systemy operacyjne znajdują się w kategorii systemy . Przykład wykorzystania potoków w systemie UNIX: Kiedy program odbierający jest gotów odczytać dane, system operacyjny przesyła mu dane z kolejki. The Design of the UNIX Operating System. by Maurice J. Bach UNIX 操作系统 设计. by Maurice J. Bach Budowa systemu operacyjnego UNIX. by Maurice J.

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PC Hardware and Software operacyjnegl. Operating Systems IT Essentials: Slide 5 – The Purpose of an Operating System 5. In this chapter, students will learn about the components, functions, and terminology related to the Windows and Windows XP operating systems.

After completing this chapter, students will meet these objectives: Explain the purpose of an operating system. Describe and compare operating systems to include purpose, limitations, ubdowa compatibilities. Determine the operating system based on customer needs. Install an operating system.

Identify and apply common preventive maintenance budosa for operating systems. Cztery podstawowe role systemu operacyjnego: The operating system boots the computer and manages the file system.

Almost all modern operating systems can support more than one user, task, or CPU. The operating system has four main roles: Control hardware access Manage files and folders Provide a user interface Manage applications After completing this section, the students will meet these objectives: Describe characteristics of modern operating systems Explain operating system concepts Teaching Strategy: An operating system is a software program that provides an interface between the user and the computer, and manages thousands of applications.

Control hardware access – The operating system manages the interaction between applications and the hardware. To access and communicate with the hardware, the operating system installs a device driver for each hardware component.

Budowa systemu operacyjnego UNIX

A device driver is a small program written by the hardware manufacturer and supplied with the hardware component. The process of assigning system resources and installing drivers can be performed with Plug and Play PnP. The operating system automatically detects the PnP-compatible hardware and installs the driver for that component.

The operating system then configures the device and updates the registry, which is a database that contains all the information about the computer. The registry contains information about applications, users, hardware, network settings, and file types.

Manage files and folders – The operating system creates a file structure on the hard disk drive to allow data to be stored.

A file is a block of related data that is given a single name and treated as a single unit. Program and data files are grouped together in a directory. The files and directories are organized for easy retrieval and use. Directories can be kept inside other directories. These nested directories are referred to as subdirectories. Directories are called folders in Windows operating systems, and subdirectories are called bdowa.

User interface – The operating system enables the user to interact with software and hardware. There are two types of user interfaces: Application management – The operating system manages all programs to ensure that the correct resources are allocated to the applications.


The operating system locates an application and loads it into the RAM of the computer. Applications are software programs, such as word processors, databases, spreadsheets, games, and many other applications. The operating system ensures that syystemu application has adequate system resources. Application programming interface API is a set of guidelines used by programmers to ensure that the application they are developing is compatible with an operating system.

Here operacyjego two examples of APIs: Slide 8 — User Interface 5. Slide 9 — Compare Operating Systems 5.

The following terms are often used when comparing operating systems: Multi-user — Two or more users can work with programs and share sytemu devices, such as printers, at the same time.

Multi-tasking — The computer is capable of operating multiple applications at the same time. Multi-processing — The computer can have two or more central processing units CPUs that programs share. Multi-threading — A program can operacyjnevo broken into smaller parts that can be loaded as needed by the operating system. Multi-threading allows individual programs sytemu be multi-tasked. Almost all modern operating systems are multi-user and multi-tasking, and they support multi-processing and multi-threading.

Slide 10 — Real Mode 5. The mode of operation operacyjngeo to the capability of the CPU and the systemh environment. The mode of operation determines how the CPU will manage applications and memory. The four common modes of operation are real mode, protected mode, virtual real mode, and compatibility mode. Real Mode A CPU that operates in real mode can only execute one program at a time, uinx it can only address 1 MB of system memory at a time.

Although all modern processors have real mode available, it is only used by DOS and DOS applications or by bit operating systems, such as Windows 3.

In real mode, when an application creates an error, the entire computer can be affected because the program has direct access to memory.

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This can cause the computer to stop responding, operacynjego, or shut down due to corruption of the memory space. Virtual memory is hard disk space that is used to emulate RAM. Operating systems that use protected mode shstemu manage multiple programs simultaneously. Protected mode is used by bit operating systems, such as Windows or Windows XP. In protected mode, applications are protected from using the memory reserved for another application that is currently running.

Slide 12 – Virtual Real Mode 5. Compatibility Mode Compatibility mode creates the environment of an earlier operating system for applications that are not compatible with the current operating system. As an example, an application that checks the version of the operating system may be written for Oprracyjnego NT and require a particular service pack.

Compatibility mode can create the proper environment or version of the operating system to allow oepracyjnego application to run as if it is in the intended environment. The type of OS selected depends on the customer’s requirements for the computer. There are two distinct types of operating systems: A network operating system NOS is designed for a corporate environment serving multiple users with a wide range of needs. After completing this section, students will meet these objectives: Describe desktop operating systems.


Describe network operating systems.

Potok (Unix)

Mac OS X Linux: GUI interface Standard “look and feel” characteristics Multithreading capabilities Multitasking capabilities Ability to function with most hardware The differences between desktop operating systems are typically related to availability and how much can be accomplished using the GUI: The code for an operating system will be either open source or proprietary: Open source applications can be read pperacyjnego modified.

There are few restrictions on downloading, using, or rewriting open source software. Programmers openly share code with other programmers. Linux distributions are open source. Proprietary applications cannot be read or modified. Proprietary software agreements restrict the use of the software, identifying where operaxyjnego when the software may be used.

Microsoft Windows products are proprietary. Supports multiple users Runs multi-user applications Is robust and redundant Provides increased security compared to desktop oeracyjnego systems These are the most common network operating systems: Microsoft Windows — Network operating systems offered by Microsoft are Windows Server and Windows Server Operacymnego Server operating systems use a central database called Active Directory to manage network resources.

To complete this worksheet, students will conduct research for three different network operating system certifications.

Then the students will conduct research for at least ssystemu network jobs available in your area. Describe the network jobs and the required certifications needed for the position. Which job would you prefer?

List reasons for your selection. Before recommending an OS to your customer, investigate the types of applications that your customer will be using. If the computer will be part of a network, the operating system must also be compatible with the operating systems of the other computers in the network.

The network type determines what operating eystemu are compatible. Microsoft Windows networks can have multiple computers using different versions of Microsoft operating systems. These are some guidelines that will help you determine the best operating system for your customer: If the customer will be using a customized systsmu, the programmer of that application will specify which operating system is compatible with it. Most off-the-shelf applications specify a list of operacyjnegk operating systems on the outside of the application package.

Are the applications programmed for a single user or multiple users? This information will help you decide whether to recommend a desktop OS or a network Opfracyjnego. If the computer will be connected to a network, make sure to recommend the same OS platform that the other computers on the network use. Are any data files shared with other computers, such as a laptop or home computer? To ensure compatibility of file formats, recommend the same OS platform that the other data file-sharing computers use.