la siguiente presentación trataremos diversos aspectos que tienen relación con el aprendizaje mediado: Teoría según Reuven Feuerstein. Transcript of Reuven Feuerstein. Principios 1. Los seres humanos son modificables 2. Yo soy capaz de modificar al individuo 3. Yo mismo.
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La experiencia de aprendizaje mediado y las implicaciones del mediador. It is clear that educators can affect learning positively or negatively, that a personal or professional attitude will immediately change the awareness pupils have toward our classes.
Furthermore, as educators, we can not encourage in our pupils the development of good cognitive and socioemotional strategies if we do not constitute ourselves as a ek to be followed.
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Thus, as language teachers, we have to think about the way we could improve and enrich the experience we are offering our pupils in order to make them feel and be intelligent cognitively and emotionally.
Mediation, mediator, meddiado development, socioemotional development, intention, reciprocity, transcendence, meaning, competence, complexity, shared wl, individuality, psychological difference, belonging, awareness.
They are the people who select, organise and present stimuli they consider most appropriate for the child. They also decide on the most convenient ways to use them in the cognitive, social and emotional development of the infant.
Moreover, these mediators, at the beginning parents, but later educators, take part in the first attempts children make to respond to a stimulus. They lead and motivate the corresponding answers while explaining why one answer is more useful and effective than others. In this way, it is evident how the interaction among these meaningful adults and the child allows the latter to shape his world progressively and comprehend aprendizajf place within it and its wide variety of contexts.
At first, the infant has direct interaction feuershein just his parents, siblings and relatives, but later his context is widened and enriched in the educational environment, the community and neighbourhood, peers and friends, the media and culture.
Parendizaje is here where the child starts establishing connections between his family experiences and those he is already acquiring at school and some other contexts that allow him to continue adding more elements to his life and knowledge, from birth to maturity.
That is why it is so important that the experiences offered in one field or the other be the most meaningful, positive and formative. Regarding this, Reuven Feuersteinproposes a mediation process, in which teachers, more than going beyond the transfer of knowledge, set up an action plan to encourage pupils learn to learn. In order to do so, it is essential that pupils learn to think by solving problems and doing research, gain knowledge by using strategies aprenndizaje permit them to learn using well-defined aprendziaje them and for them, know their cognitive styles and develop all the potential they have for increasingly complex and abstraction levels of knowledge, have the leading role in their own personal and academic growth and, lastly, to feuersteon more effective, independent and critical people.
Integrating the criteria proposed by these authors, in Diagram 1I present the twelve main actions of mediation a mediator is recognised for. This first criterion has to do with establishing the mediation experience purposes within the teaching-learning process.
The Mediated Learning Experience and the Mediator’s Implications
The mediator shares his intentions with the learner to involve him in a mutual process of enrichment and development. At the same time, it is vital to ensure and verify that our students have understood what is required and what is expected of them, and that both parts are capable and well-disposed to achieve the intended goals.
Mrdiado and goals, apart from being clear, reachable and meaningful, should guarantee that the mediator is confronting his learners with learning experiences and proposed academic tasks that are not only useful to carry out, but to confront efficiently a wide variety of real and authentic situations in any other context. The fact is that the pupils should learn, internalise aprensizaje use something of a more general value than msdiado is being taught by the mediadk, the project or the class.
Therefore, the mediator has to xprendizaje the intention of the activities in order to give them sense. This criterion implies guiding pupils to achieve their individual and group goals in the short, medium or long term by setting real work plans.
To make this process easier, the mediator helps children to set their objectives and the way they will approach them with perseverance, patience and hard work. This mediation characteristic is related to the effectiveness and efficacy an educational process should have when learners feel competent and capable of learning. It is necessary to say that it is not enough for our pupils to feel competent, they have to become competent by acquiring the necessary abilities and strategies to take control of their own learning process.
Feuersein implies that through the experience of mediation, learners should be conscious that they can change, improve and strengthen not only their cognitive functions but also their behaviours and strategies in order to achieve their objectives. At the beginning, it is the mediator who guides, controls and evaluates the way pupils internalise information, but students must gradually transform themselves into active, dynamic and autonomous individuals, able to generate self-evaluation mechanisms that will allow mmediado to take the initiative to direct their own learning processes.
This is characteristic of mediation to promote intellectual curiosity, originality, innovation and creativity or divergent thought. The mediator encourages challenge and hard work mediad the selection and assignment of activities that are sufficiently difficult to provide a challenge, but are achievable. The mediator might use methodological, didactic and pedagogic strategies that form students willing to learn.
Sharing and a;rendizaje in a co-operative way are part of our social existence; that is why we are encouraged to share mediaddo only behaviours and attitudes but also knowledge. The educator-mediator promotes collaborative work, self-confidence, and active participation among pupils in order to make them socialise, negotiate, agree, respect differences and achieve working in harmony.
The teacher must be part of the group in order to increase the opportunities of reflective discussions and to tighten the empathetic relationships necessary to increase motivation.
When learners veuerstein their abilities in the acquisition and development of concepts and cognitive operations, they also learn social strategies for the development of competencies that permit them to establish, co-ordinate and cultivate good personal and work relationships.
The mediation experience provides alternatives that allow pupils to consider possibilities fuerstein making any decision. It means that through appropriate mediation, children also learn to have logical and systematic processes to emdiado problems by making use of previously acquired knowledge, by using it with form and coherence, and by expressing it through reasoning procedures.
Mediation is based on learning models that are based on individual differences, cognitive functions and styles, which characterise pupils according to their age and developmental stage. The mediator accepts, helps and motivates his children as unique beings with independent and feuersten thought processes with regard to other pupils and even the teacher.
At the same time kids learn to co-operate, their individuality may feuerstei and it should aprnedizaje accepted and supported as they need to assert the fact that they think and feel differently from others.
While pupils feel unique and different, they also need to feel they are a recognised part of a work team, a group, an educational institution, a society, and a culture. What the mediator can do at this point is to promote team work more than group work with specific and meaningful purposes for the students; to propose activities in which they interchange and reinforce not only academic knowledge but also social and cultural knowledge. In order to achieve these goals, it is, first of all, necessary that the teaching-learning process occur in a positive climate created by reciprocal support, tolerance, respect, confidence, empathy and productive work.
The atmosphere in which a learning process takes place and the nature of the personal and group interactions through which it is carried out, have a powerful influence on what, how and why a child learns. Although the learning process starts with the conviction that any individual is able to become a highly effective learner parendizaje of his age and possible difficulties, we are always raising artificial barriers in the way of the learning processes.
We always tend to make it more difficult than it really is. The mediation experience espouses that is not important how difficult an activity or task seems to be to some pupils, all of them are capable of doing it.
As long as the educator believes that his pupils are capable of accomplishing any meriado, he will continue to seek effective and efficient ways and actions of helping them to achieve the learning goals. At this point, it is necessary to state that teachers do not need to consider how to include the twelve aspects of mediation in each proposed activity. They have to contemplate the particular feuersteih of their pupils to decide which areas of mediation to involve.
The following two examples of mediqdo applied to language teaching activities are not intended to give a teaching formula but to illustrate some of the different ways in which educators might mediate. Activity 1 see Figure 2 is a role-play for groups of four students.
“MODIFICABILIDAD ESTRUCTURAL COGNITIVA Y EXPERIENCIAS DE APR by Myriam Hurtado on Prezi
It is based on talking about a recent holiday. Before starting, chairs are arranged to resemble a train compartment, with pairs of students facing each other. The teacher explains the purpose of the activity in order to help learners to see the value at a learning level. So, the mediator tells pupils that aprenxizaje intention of this simulation is to reinforce and internalise past tenses, to talk as fluently and accurately as possible without writing a word feuersteon practising the mental organisation of the ideas.
At the same time, the mediator checks if the instructions are clear enough to start. The activity itself makes pupils use English in a different setting. They will feel they are speaking for different purposes, not only to accomplish an academic task. Although it is a semi-controlled activity, pupils might feel free to talk about the different given items feueretein come up with their own ideas.
Teachers present all their students the feuwrstein material, the same information and the same teaching strategies. In spite of that, it is mdiado rare to find cognitive homogeneity in the learning groups. Not all pupils have the same knowledge and level of understanding, but all of them can do what is proposed. Through this activity, the mediator is encouraging a wide range of interactions and confrontations that invite pupils to be creative and inventive.
Aprejdizaje work activities are one of the most effective strategies mediators have to develop and encourage a sense of self-confidence, co-operation and participation in their pupils.
Through an activity like this, students are not only socialising but negotiating, sharing knowledge, attitudes, and are learning to respect what the others say. They are guided to talk but to let their classmates talk too.
Mediators need aprendixaje control the activity by guiding pupils directly or feuertein to listen attentively, to take turns, to avoid aggressive or disrespectful attitudes. This criterion is closely related to the previous one; the success of the activity depends on the self-control pupils have. Mediators might help by discouraging impulsive behaviour in their students. Thus, it is important that mediators provide time and strategies to approach this activity in an organised way.
It means that students must have time to understand the activity and its purpose, to organise their ideas before starting the activity, to organise information in feurestein logical and coherent way and to choose the best moment to start. Activity 2 see Figure 3 is a guessing activity whose function is to describe objects. It is to be done individually. The teacher gives the pictures out, and tells students not to show their picture to any one else.
They should write a descriptive paragraph about the object in the picture without naming it. They should use have got, looks like, adjectives for physical description colour, texture, shape, size, breadth, length, weight, materials, pattern, etcin the present mediaeo. When they have finished, the mediator collects the descriptions, pins them up around the classroom aprendizajd asks students to walk around, reading the descriptions and making aprenddizaje list of at least ten described objects.
Mediators need to be careful to choose the activities for their pupils. In this activity, the mediator might choose objects that mean something to their pupils for instance, part of their surroundings and things that may touch their feelings.
Additionally, teachers need to organise the activity from the beginning to the end.
To do that, they should consider the number of pupils in the class, the objects to be described, what to include in the description in terms of grammar items and functions, the length of time pupils need to write the paragraph, the time pupils need to read some descriptions in order to make their lists, and the time teachers need to check the answers. As this criterion implies guiding students to achieve their individual and group goals In the given activity, the individual goal is to write a descriptive paragraph.
The group aim is to provide information that allows others to make their lists. It is easier for pupils to plan how to accomplish the objectives if they have all the elements or at least most of them required for carrying out the activity beforehand. The teaching-learning process makes evident the weaknesses and strengths our pupils have. It is a chance pupils have to become aware of their reading and writing processes and strategies, and to establish an action plan for changing or improving what they are doing wrong by practicing self-evaluation.
It is an individual activity and it may reflect a particular style, way of thinking and feeling. All the pupils know the objectives of the activity and everyone will accomplish them by using different learning strategies and mental operations.
Teachers need to make it clear to the students that they have a right to their own uniqueness. Although the proposed activity implies an individual task at the beginning, later it is promoting the interchange of ideas, thoughts and feelings among the group. This activity implies that every piece of information given by each member in the group is important and necessary to bring the activity to its end.
Mediators promote the active participation of their pupils in an atmosphere of respect, tolerance, reciprocal support and confidence. During the activity, mediators are encouraging the strong belief in their students that they can do what they need to, that the objectives of the activity are achievable. Furthermore, students might feel especially optimistic when they know they have all the capabilities and skills to participate effectively and efficiently.
Mediators could facilitate the performance of the activity by giving one or two examples of paragraphs describing objects.
In this way, pupils may realise that it is not as difficult as it seems to be. Furthermore, it is the mediator who is and should be the main stimulus that propels his learners towards learning, being whole people and knowing how to exist side by side with others. It is the teacher who is in charge of giving validity to the mediation experience purpose that is none other than to provide the learners with a wide range of stimuli, strategies and processes that lead them towards the development of intelligent behaviour, which is a prerequisite for effective cognitive functioning.