FRENADO REGENERATIVO PDF

Many translated example sentences containing “frenado regenerativo” – English- Spanish dictionary and search engine for English translations. Con la utilización del frenado regenerativo se recupera la energía cinética transformándola en energía eléctrica, que podrá ser utilizada en. Regenerative braking is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object by converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used.

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Regenerative braking is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle or object by converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used immediately or stored until needed.

In this mechanism the electric motor uses the vehicle’s momentum to recover energy that would be otherwise lost to the brake discs as heat. This contrasts with conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy is converted to unwanted and wasted heat by friction in the brakesor with dynamic brakeswhere energy is recovered by using electric motors as generators but is immediately dissipated as heat in resistors.

In addition to improving the overall efficiency of the vehicle, regeneration can greatly extend the life of the braking system as its parts do not wear as quickly. The most common form of regenerative brake involves an electric motor as an electric generator. In electric railways the electricity generated is fed back into the supply system.

In battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored chemically in a batteryelectrically in a bank of capacitorsor mechanically in a rotating flywheel. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles use hydraulic motors to store energy in the form of compressed air.

In a fuel cell powered vehicle, the electric energy generated by the motor is used to break waste water down into oxygen, and hydrogen which goes back into the fuel cell for later reuse. Regenerative braking is not by itself sufficient as the sole means of safely bringing a vehicle to a standstill, or slowing it as required, so it must be used in conjunction with another braking system such as friction -based braking.

Regenerative and friction braking must both be used, creating the need to control them to produce the required total braking. The GM EV-1 was the first commercial car to do this. In and engineers Abraham Farag and Loren Majersik were issued two patents for this brake-by-wire technology.

Early applications commonly suffered from a serious safety hazard: Electric motorswhen used in reverse function as generatorsconvert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Vehicles propelled by electric motors use them as generators when using regenerative braking, braking by transferring mechanical energy from the wheels to an electrical load. Early examples of this system were the front-wheel drive conversions of horse-drawn cabs by Louis Antoine Krieger in Paris in the s. The Krieger electric landaulet had a drive motor in each front wheel with a second set of parallel windings bifilar coil for regenerative braking.

Raworth’s Traction Patents —, offering them economic and operational benefits [5] [6] [7] as explained in some detail by his son Alfred Raworth. These included tramway systems at DevonportRawtenstallBirmingham, Crystal Palace-Croydonand many others. Slowing the speed of the cars or keeping it in control on descending gradients, the motors worked as generators and braked the vehicles.

The tram cars also had wheel brakes and track slipper brakes which could stop the tram should the electric braking systems fail. In several cases the tram car motors were shunt wound instead of series wound, and the systems on the Crystal Palace line utilized series-parallel controllers.

The Baku-Tbilisi-Batumi railway Transcaucasus Railway or Georgian railway started utilizing regenerative braking in the early s. This was especially effective on the steep and dangerous Surami Pass. Electric cars used regenerative braking since the earliest experiments, but this was often a complex affair where the driver had to flip switches between various operational modes in order to use it.

The Baker Electric Runabout and the Owen Magnetic were early examples, which used many switches and modes controlled by an expensive “black box” or “drum switch” as part of their electrical system.

Improvements in electronics allowed this process to be fully automated, starting with ‘s AMC Amitron experimental electric car. Designed by Gulton Industries [14] the motor controller automatically began battery charging when the brake pedal was applied. Many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this technique to extend the range of the battery pack, especially those using an AC drive train most earlier designs used DC power.

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The use of a capacitor allows much more rapid peak storage of energy, and at higher voltages. Spragueintroduced two important inventions: During braking, the traction motor connections are altered to turn them into electrical generators. The motor fields are connected across the main traction generator MG and the motor armatures are connected across the load.

The MG now excites the motor fields. The rolling locomotive or multiple unit wheels turn the motor armatures, and the motors act as generators, either sending the generated current through onboard resistors dynamic braking or back into the supply regenerative braking. Compared to electro-pneumatic friction brakes, braking with the traction motors can be regulated faster improving the performance of wheel slide protection. For a given direction of travel, current flow through the motor armatures during braking will be opposite to that during motoring.

Therefore, the motor exerts torque in a direction that is opposite from the rolling direction. Braking effort is proportional to the product of the magnetic strength of the field windings, multiplied by that of the armature windings. It was expected that the Delhi Metro would reduce its emissions by overtons of CO 2 per year once its phase II was complete, through the use of regenerative braking.

Electricity generated by regenerative braking may be fed back into the traction power supply; either offset against other electrical demand on the network at that instant, used for head end power loads, or stored in lineside storage systems for later use. A form of what can be described as regenerative braking is used on some parts of the London Undergroundachieved by having small slopes leading up and down from stations.

The train is slowed by the climb, and then leaves down a slope, so kinetic energy is converted to gravitational potential energy in the station. What are described as dynamic brakes ” rheostatic brakes ” in the UK on electric traction systems, unlike regenerative brakes, dissipate electric energy as heat rather than using it, by passing the current through large banks of resistors. Vehicles that use dynamic brakes include forklift trucksdiesel-electric locomotivesand trams. This heat can be used to warm the vehicle interior, or dissipated externally by large radiator -like cowls to house the resistor banks.

FUNCIONAMIENTO DEL FRENADO REGENERATIVO DE LOS AUTOS HÍBRID by israel mastranzo on Prezi

General Electric’s experimental steam turbine locos featured true regeneration. These two locomotives ran the steam water over the resistor packs, as opposed to air cooling used in most dynamic brakes.

This energy displaced the oil normally burned to keep the water hot, and thereby recovered energy that could be used to accelerate again. The main disadvantage of regenerative brakes when compared with dynamic brakes is the need to closely match the generated current with the supply characteristics and increased maintenance cost of the lines.

With DC supplies, this requires that the voltage be closely controlled. The supply frequency must also be matched this mainly applies to locomotives where an AC supply is rectified for DC motors. In areas where there is a constant need for power unrelated to moving the vehicle, such as electric train heat or air conditioningthis load requirement can be utilized as a sink for the recovered energy via modern AC traction systems.

Using HEP loads in this way has prompted recent electric regeneratibo designs such as regenetativo ALP and Regenedativo to eliminate the use of dynamic brake resistor regenerafivo and also eliminates any need for any external power infrastructure to accommodate power recovery allowing self-powered vehicles to employ regenerative braking as well. A small number of steep grade railways have used 3-phase power supplies and induction motors.

This results in a near constant speed for all trains, as the motors rotate with the supply frequency both when driving and braking. Kinetic energy recovery systems KERS were used for the motor sport Formula One ‘s seasonand are under development for road vehicles.

The concept of transferring the vehicle’s kinetic energy using flywheel energy storage was postulated by physicist Richard Feynman in the s [22] and is exemplified in such systems as the ZytekFlybrid, [23] Torotrak [24] [25] and Xtrac used in F1. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotrak’s technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a regenedativo variable transmission CVT. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub looking rgeenerativo a drum brake.

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The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid. The system occupies a volume of 13 litres. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of KERS systems in With the introduction of KERS in the season, four teams used it at some point in the season: During the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system. Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth.

At the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his teammate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was also the first instance of an all KERS front row. He only took me because of KERS at the beginning”. This was to balance the sport’s move from 2. Bosch also offers a range of electric hybrid systems for commercial and light-duty applications. Peugeot planned to campaign the car in the Le Mans Series seasonalthough it was not capable of scoring championship points.

Vodafone McLaren Mercedes began testing of their KERS in September at the Jerez test track in preparation for the F1 season, although at that time it was not yet known if they would be operating an electrical or mechanical system. Both parties believed this collaboration would improve McLaren’s KERS system and help the system filter down to road car technology.

This was against the rules, so they were banned from doing it afterwards. Regenerative braking is also possible on a non-electric bicycle. Automobile Club de l’Ouestthe organizer behind the annual 24 Hours of Le Mans event and the Le Mans Series is currently “studying specific rules for LMP1 that will be equipped with a kinetic energy recovery system.

The energy of a flywheel can be described by this general energy equation, assuming the flywheel is the system:. An assumption is made that during braking there is no change in the potential energy, enthalpy of the flywheel, pressure or volume of the flywheel, so only kinetic energy will be considered.

As the car is braking, no energy is dispersed by the flywheel, and the only energy into the flywheel is the initial kinetic energy of the car.

The equation can be simplified to:. The flywheel stores the energy as rotational kinetic energy. Because the energy is kept as kinetic energy and not transformed into another type of energy this process is efficient.

The flywheel can only store so much energy, regenerativp, and this is limited by its maximum amount of rotational kinetic energy. This is determined based upon the inertia of the flywheel and its angular velocity. As the car sits idle, little reegenerativo kinetic energy is lost over time so the initial amount of energy in the flywheel can be assumed to equal the final amount of energy distributed by the flywheel.

Regenerative brake

The amount of kinetic energy distributed by the flywheel is therefore:. Regenerative braking has a similar energy equation to the equation for the mechanical flywheel. The initial kinetic energy is transformed into electrical energy by the generator and is then converted into chemical energy by the battery. This process is less efficient than the flywheel.

The efficiency of the generator can be represented by:. The only work into the generator is the initial kinetic energy of the car and the only work produced by the generator is the electrical energy. Rearranging this equation to solve for the power produced by the generator gives this equation:. The work out of the battery represents the amount of energy produced by the regenerative brakes. This can be represented by:.

The higher the efficiency between the electric motor and the wheels, the higher the recuperation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kinetic energy recovery system.