Rapid postharvest browning of litchi fruit pericarp is the result of polyphenol oxidase activity (Underhill and Critchley, , Jiang and Fu, , Jiang, , . Pericarp browning is the major post-harvest problem of litchi (Litchi chinensisSonn) fruit, resulting in reduced commercial value of the fruit. Mature lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit were heat-treated at 60C for 10 min to study heat-induced pericarp browning. Polyphenol oxidase (EC ).

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Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G. Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to oericarp pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at brownlng storage. It was found that 0. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments.

Litchi Litchi chinensis Sonn. The fruits are harvested at ripe stage since it is non-climacteric in nature Swart Generally the ripe stage of litchi fruit is adjudged by the development of red colour on the fruit pericarp and flattening of tubercles. The rapid enzymatic degradation of anthocyanin pigments along with oxidation of phenolic compounds are believed to be the main causes lktchi browning of pericarp Jaing Recently, antioxidants like N -acetyl cysteine ACisoascorbic acid IAA have been found very effective to reduce the browning and to prevent the postharvest decay of fruits and vegetables.

The polyphenol oxidase activity can be decreased by the use of N -acetyl cysteine ACisoascorbic acid IAA than commonly used antioxidants like citric acid and glutathione or its combinations Lei et al. On the other hand, salicylic acid C 7 H 6 O 3the active ingredient of aspirin, has been pericaep to regulate a number of processes in plants. Salicylic acid has been found to delay the senescence of fruits Hassan iltchi al.

Though, sulphur dioxide SO 2 fumigation to the fruits has been practiced commercially to overcome pericarp browning related problems. However, SO 2 -fumigation has certain demerits concerned with residual toxicity and taste of the fruits Sivakumar et al.

The consumers and packhouse workers have also suffered to health related problems with the consumption and processing of the SO 2 -fumigant fruits Koeing et al. It is also evident that commercial SO 2 -fumigation intensified micro-cracking of the fruit pericarp Sivakumar et al. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find out an alternative postharvest tool that are safe for consumption, ecofriendly and economically viable to over come litchi pericarp browning and maintaining the overall fruit quality.

The main objective of the present investigation is to explore the possibility of these potential promising compounds which may replace the commercial use of SO 2 -fumigation and also to understand the various effects of these chemicals on fruit quality.

Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. Fruits were selected for uniformity of shape, colour and size and any blemished or diseased fruits discarded.

Prior to application of treatments fruits were precooled followed by air dried. The total 8 treatments comprised of control, isoascorbic acid 0. Fruits dipped in tap water served as control. Appearance was accessed visually by measuring the extent of the total browned area on each fruit pericarp using fruits during shelf life evaluation, on the following scale: On the basis of number of spoiled fruits unfit for human consumption observed at every one day interval, the percentage spoilage was worked out and the spoilt fruits were removed.

Membrane permeability expressed as relative electrolyte leakage, was determined by Jiang and Chen Electrolyte leakage was determined with a conductivity meter. Relative leakage rate was expressed as a proportion of total electrolyte leakage. Polyphenol oxidase activity PPO activity was assayed with 4-methylcatechol as a substrate according to the method of Zauberman et al.


Assay of PPO activity was performed using 1.

One unit of enzyme activity was defined as the amount which caused a change of oericarp. A unit of anthocyanin was expressed as a difference of 0. Total soluble solid Lihchi and titratable acidity concentrations of litchi fruits were analyzed every day starting from first day harvesting date to sixth day of storage. The supernatant was collected for analysis of TSS using a hand refractometer and titratable acidity as percentage citric acid determined by titration with 0.

The titre value was recorded and calculated according to the method described by Ranganna Weight of ten fruits in a polythene bag was measured and the rate bronwing weight loss was calculated by the following formula:. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design. Data were tasted by the analysis of variance as given by Cochran and Cox It is evident from the Fig. The browning indexes of the control fruits were 4.

Control of post-harvest pericarp browning of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn)

Pericarp browning was not recorded up to second days in the litchi fruits treated with 0. However, after second pericarpp of storage browning index in SO 2 fumigation was significantly higher than 0. This type of findings suggested that salicylic acid delays the browning of pericarp in litchi. However, literature on anti-browning property of salicylic acid in fruits is meagre. This sulphur containing amino acid derivative has been reported to be very effective against browning control of fresh-cut pineapple and banana slices Pfricarp and Simons ; Monsalve-Gonzalez et al.

Effect of antioxidants and litcchi acid on browning index, decay percentage, PPO activity, relative leakage rate and anthocyanin conc. Post harvest decay of fruits broaning associated with the entry of pathogens in the fruits.

Development of microcracking has been reported on litchi fruit pericarp after harvest and during subsequent storage Underhill and Simons Application of SO 2 fumigation intensified the extent of microcracking in litchi Sivakumar et al. This microcracking makes the way for pathogens to take an entry in the fruit. In this present study salicylic acid treatments proved best browniny other treatments. Salicylic acid has been reported to regulate the expression of pathogenesis related protein genes, which suggest its role as a signal molecule in acquiring the resistance against pathogen attacks Raskin Salicylic acid treatment had shown effective in eliciting host defense responses in tobacco leaves Chen et al.

Application salicylic acid effectively inhibited the disease development in mango and strawberry Zainuri et al. In this experiment, anthocyanin content of litchi fruit pericarp decreased with storage time Fig.

Significant control over relative leakage rate was found with the treatment 0. However, the treatments 0. In non-climacteric fruits anthocyanin concentration is increased with the advancement of ripening Jiang and Joyce Salicylic acid has a property to delay the ripening process by slowing down the ripening related changes Hassan et al.

The enzymatic process like poly phenol oxidase activity increased as ripening progressed.

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The browning of pericarp is positively correlated with the polyphenol oxidase activity Lin et al. In this experiment salicylic acid had effectively reduced the browning effect, suggesting that slow rate of poly phenol oxidase activity. Relative leakage rate denotes membrane permeability Marangoni et al.

Maintenance of membrane integrity is characterized by the activities of prricarp main cell wall degrading enzymes namely cellulose, polygalactouronase PG and xylanase Hurber In banana decreased level of all these enzymes was reported with the application of salicylic acid in a concentration depending manner during the process of ripening Srivastava and Dwivedi Data on titratable acidity, total soluble solids, TSS: Second highest total soluble solid content was recorded in the fruits treated with 0.


The least soluble solid content was found in control. The titratable acidity content had significantly lower in the fruits treated with 0. However, there was no significant difference obtained between 0. Fruits which were treated with isoascorbic acid, N -acetyl cysteine and salicylic acid showed a balanced TSS: Minimum physiological loss in weight was obtained with the application of 0.

Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, TSS: The fruits treated with salicylic acid had higher concentration of total soluble solid, titratable acidity and lower rate of physiological loss in weight. This type of effect found in salicylic acid treatment could be due to the fact that it has the ability to delay the ripening process of the fruits Leslie and Romani Salicylic acid delay the process pericarrp senescence was also reported in pear Hassan et al.

However, isoascorbic acid also had a great effect in maintaining the litchi fruit quality in terms of total soluble solid, titratable acidity, TSS: Effect of antioxidants and salicylic acid on quality attributes of litchi on browjing day after harvest.

The litchi cultivar Rose Scented is having very high export potentiality and popular through lericarp the country. The extent of post harvest browning and decay, limits its profits. We were trying to find out most effective compound which can reduce these problems. Recently, several compounds were used to manage this problem like isoascorbic acid, N -acetyl cystein and salicylic acid in other fruit crops.

In this present investigation, the internal processes which cause browning and decay were significantly reduced with the application of 0. Therefore, the best way to manage the browning and decay with the maintenance of quality in litchi may be combined application of salicylic acid and isoascorbic acid.

But during combined application, the liychi concentration of these compounds may vary, which requires further research in this field. However, these findings have given a ray of hope for further substitution of SO 2 fumigation with some non-hazardous chemicals in near future.

The authors are also thankful to Dr. Daya Shankar Mishra, Phone: National Center for Brownibg InformationU. J Food Sci Technol. Published online May 5. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Revised Apr 2; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage.

Introduction Litchi Litchi chinensis Sonn. Browning index Appearance was accessed visually by measuring the extent of the total browned area on each fruit pericarp using fruits during shelf life evaluation, on the following scale: Decay percentage On the basis of number of spoiled fruits unfit for human consumption observed at every one day interval, the percentage spoilage was worked out and the spoilt fruits were removed.

Relative leakage rate Membrane permeability expressed as relative electrolyte leakage, was determined by Jiang and Chen