The major pathways of macrophage polarization are outlined. The crosstalk between the M1-M2 macrophage–polarizing pathways is also. Polarized activation of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage into M1 and M2 cells is an operationally useful, simplified descriptor of the functional plasticity . Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to IFNs, Toll-like receptor engagement, or IL-4/IL signaling.

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Indeed, this macrophage plasticity calls for in-depth analysis in different pathological conditions. Resolution of inflammation and repair. IL-4—inducible chemokines acting on CCR4 e. Uncontrolled M1 inflammation associated with acute infections with E.

Weisberg SP, et al. Immunology of the Skin Kabashima Springer Japan Chemokines and CSF-1 are more than monocyte attractants; they also promote M2-like skewing of macrophage function 97, Click here to view. Nguyen KD, et al. Obstacles and opportunities for understanding macrophage polarization.

P,asticity contrast, M2 macrophages are considered to be involved in parasite containment and promotion of tissue remodeling and tumor progression and to have immunoregulatory functions.

Lucas T, et al. In contrast, M1-like ATMs drive obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance Recent results suggest that in situ, proliferation is a key determinant of macrophage accumulation during inflammation in the peritoneum and lungs Antonio SicaAlberto Mantovani. Reese TA, et macropuage.


Innate immune response triggers lupus-like autoimmune disease. Reduction in the evolution of murine type II collagen-induced arthritis by treatment with rosiglitazone, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

Induction of allergic inflammation by interleukin in experimental animal models. The polarizqtion immune response in ulcerative lesions of Buruli disease. The identification of the various cellular and molecular pathways that participate in inflammation in different polagization cancers will be required to translate our understanding of cancer-related inflammation to meaningful therapeutic ;olarization.

However, in selected preclinical and clinical conditions, coexistence of cells in different activation states and unique or mixed phenotypes have been observed, a reflection of dynamic changes and complex tissue-derived signals.

Cuzzocrea S, et al. These signals induce expression of functional phenotypes that share selected properties with M2 cells e.

Takeda N, et al. Regulation of skewing also involves epigenetic modifications with involvement of histone vivp and acetylation. Colony-stimulating factor-1 antisense treatment suppresses growth of human tumor xenografts in mice. Yu M, et al.

Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas.

It is therefore likely that classically activated M1 macrophages contribute to the T polarizatoon elimination and equilibrium phases during tumor progression Mahabeleshwar GH, et al. Liao X, et al. Alternative macrophage activation and metabolism.


Chen J, et al. Table 1 Prototypic therapeutic strategies targeting macrophage polarization. B regulatory cells and the tumor-promoting actions of TNF-alpha during squamous carcinogenesis. Progress has been made in defining the molecular pathways that account for polarization of ATMs 192024, in obesity. Int J Exp Pathol.

However, in a number of pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disordersthis is not the case, and macrophage populations express mixed or unique phenotypes. Macrophages undergo dynamic changes during different phases of wound healing. Colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody reverses chemoresistance in human MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts.

Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas

They are characterized by efficient phagocytic activity, high expression of scavenging molecules, the expression of mannose and galactose receptors, production of ornithine and polyamines through the arginase pathway, and an IL lo IL hi IL-1decoyR hi IL-1RA hi phenotype 1veitas. Haringman JJ, et al. ATM infiltration correlates with the degree of obesity — This observation may suggest a functional link between oxygen deprivation, as occurring in wounds and tumors, and progressive induction plasricity proarteriogenic M2 macrophages.

Robert S, et al. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage.